¿ Te has fijado en la cantidad de pared seca que hay en Menorca ?

¿Sabías que en Menorca hay más de 11.000 kilómetros de pared seca?

 

Es difícil imaginar cuánto son 11.000 kilómetros. Para hacernos una idea: podríamos hacer un muro desde España hasta Japón en líne recta ¿No es impresionante?

Antes que nada, para quien no sepa qué es esto de la pared seca, vamos a explicarlo: es el nombre que se le da a los muros construidos con una determinada técnica en seco, muy laboriosa y precisa. “En seco” porque no se utiliza cemento, se construye piedra sobre piedra. El resultado es un muro estable perfectamente encajado. Quienes construyen este muro se llaman margeners de “margen” o paredadors de “pared” y cuando veáis de cerca estos muros veréis lo compleja que es su estrucura.

Esta técnica de construcción en seco no es un invento menorquín. Este muro sin mortero compone el patrimonio etnológico de ingleses, franceses, griegos, suizos, eslovenos y españoles. Lo curioso en Menorca es la cantidad de pared seca que existe y su relación con los primeros pobladores que habitaron la isla. Que haya tal cantidad de kilómetros de muro en seco no es casualidad, y que su uso haya sobrevivido al paso de los siglos hasta hoy, tampoco.

En "seco" porque es una técnica de construcción que no utiliza cemento. Se construye piedra sobre piedra.

La técnica es muy específica, pensad que aunque el muro se vea recto, las piedras son irregulares. En un principio, no son piedras cortadas a conciencia como pueden ser los bloques de marés, que sí se extraían de las canteras de la isla para construir  casas, llocs e iglesias, entre otras cosas. Las piedras que se utilizan para construir la pared seca, son desprendimientos de la capa superficial de la tierra, por lo que cada una es diferente en tamaño y en forma. Aunque sí es cierto que a veces se pulen para conseguir que encajen con mayor precisión.

Quienes ya conozcan Menorca sabrán que la pared seca es uno de los principales elementos culturales que componen el paisaje de la isla. Se mire hacia donde se mire se avista siempre este muro. Como decíamos al principio, la peculiaridad de esta técnica, en Menorca, es su origen y su uso, lo que responde a la cantidad de kilómetros de pared.

Remontándonos a la llegada de los primeros habitantes de Menorca, aproximadamente en el 2.400 a.n.e, éstos encontraron una isla de piedras y viento. Ante tal cantidad de piedras, aprovecharon este recurso natural para construir sus torres de vigilancia, casas, cementerios y templos. Ésto en cuanto su origen.

El uso que se le daba a estas construcciones ha evolucionado hasta día de hoy. Los herederos de las tierras de la isla separaban sus propiedades con estos muros. Los pageses, quienes trabajan el campo menorquín, aprovechaban los montones de piedras que se acumulaban en los márgenes de la propiedad cuando despejaban los campos, para levantar los muros. Con el tiempo, los hermanos que volvían a heredar estas tierras, separaban su propiedad con pared seca quedando la terreno original dividido por el muro una vez más.

Esto en parte explica los 11.000 kilómetros de pared seca de Menorca, pero la cosa no acaba ahí. Además, en Menorca no existen pastores. El ganado se controla dividiendo las parcelas en subparcelas o tanques, cerrados con barreras de acebuche. Cuando el alimento de una tanca se termina, se pasa al ganado a la siguiente tanca, así puede pastar de manera controlada pero sin la supervisión de un pastor.

La construcción en seco no es un invento menorquín. La peculiaridad en Menorca es su origen y su uso, además de la la cantidad de kilómetros que hay en la isla de este muro.

Para valorar la importancia de esta técnica tradicional en Menorca, en octubre del año pasado se celebró en la isla el XVI Congreso Internacional sobre pared seca, organizado por la Sociedad Histórico Arqueológica Martí Bella de Ciutadella y La Societé Scientifique internationale pour l’Ètude Pluridisciplinaire de la Pierre Sechè. A este congreso de nivel mundial, asisten profesionales de diferentes ámbitos, paredadores de todo el mundo, historiadores, arqueólogos, antropólogos e incluso arquitectos. Sin duda, la pared seca es un elemento fundamental a la hora de conocer el patrimonio menorquín.

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