Over COVID-19

los 6 faros de Menorca

Dependiendo de quién te lo cuente o dónde lo leas, te explicarán que en Menorca hay 5 faros o 7. Nosotros echamos la cuenta y nos salen 6 faros.

 

El faro más antiguo del mundo que todavía exista es el de Torre de Hércules en A Coruña, Galicia y se construyó en época romana en el siglo I. Se cree que en Mallorca existía un faro que construyeron los romanos, en la actual Alcúdia antigua Pollentia concretamente, ya que Mallorca se encontraba justo en medio de su travesía hacia el Oeste, pero no hay pruebas de su existencia a parte de una lámina de bronce que se encontró en la zona escrita en latín.

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Los faros tienen cierta simbología romántica. Los fareros, esos hombres que vivían en los faros, alejados y casi siempre en solitario, que dedicaban su vida a iluminar a las almas errantes del mar. Efectivamente los fareros vivían aislados del mundo, y no era una vida sencilla. Hoy en día la mayoría de los faros funcionan de manera automática, la figura del farero dejó de existir hace varias décadas, y además las últimas tecnologías en sistemas de navegación pone en peligro de extinción a estos edificios universalmente reconocidos y de tanto valor patrimonial.

Además, ¿sabías que no hay dos faros iguales en todo el mundo? cada faro es único, y se carazterizan uno de otro por dos motivos. El primero y principalme es su mensaje de luz. Cada faro emite un frecuencia de luz diferente, esto hace que los marineros los identifiquen y se ubiquen, gracias a las señales luminosas. La segunda particularidad es su forma, su estructura o su dibujo. Por ejemplo, en Menorca el faro de Cavallería es blanco encalado, el de Punta Nati es marés vista, el de Cap d’Artrutx tiene 3 líneas y una especie de contrafuertes que le da una apariencia cuadrada y un toque personal, el de s’Illa de s’Aire tiene 4 líneas en horizontal y el de Favàritx tiene un dibujo en espiral. Sus formas y dibujos diferentes ayudan no sólo ubicarnos desde el mar, sino también desde tierra y durante el día.

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Hoy en día los faros de Menorca se gestionan desde Palma, Mallorca, pero no siempre ha sido así. El primer faro de Menorca que a día de hoy sigue en pié, se construyó a mediados del siglo XIX, ya en dominio español, para evitar los más de 700 naufragios registrados sólo en la costa norte. Tras su costrucción, se seguían sucediendo No es difícil de creer tal cantidad de naufragios si tenemos en cuenta que Menorca, que no es una isla plana, aunque el pico más alto son sólo 357 metros, evidencia la dificultad con la que debían encontrarse los marineros, en pleno temporal invernal de tramuntana, dominados por las corrientes Norte - Sur del mediterráneo, y en plena noche.

Los faros se ubican en puntos estratégicos, lugares altos y despejados para que su luz sea visible desde la distancia. Antiguamente funcionaba con dos mariposas con mecha que se alimentaban flotando en un recipiente lleno de aceite de oliva. Este sistema duró hasta finales del siglo XVIII, cuando tanto la óptica como el sistema de combustión evolucionaron. La luz del faro que antes era fija, comenzó a dar vueltas sobre un sistema de relojería, y la lente escalonada fue un cambio revolucionario ya que conseguía recoger la luz que hasta entonces se dispersaba para proyectarla a mayor distancia. Este nuevo sistema de alumbrado se produjo en el siglo XIX. Otro dato curioso es que antiguamente en Menorca, los faros se iluminaban de octubre a abril, y en verano se confiaba que los marineros pudieran guiarse sin problema.

Quienes hayan indagado sobre los faros de Menorca, habrán encontrado que en la mayoría de las guías, libros y páginas web son 7. Lo cierto es que son 6 faros más una baliza.

El primer faro que se construyó en Menorca fue el faro del puerto de Mahón, a día de hoy no existe. Se construyó en 1850 y comenzó a funcionar en 1852. Con el paso de los años, medio siglo después, debido a su ubicación, en las antiguas ruinas del antiguo Castillo de San Felipe, y que además se encontraba en plena zona de maniobras militares, tomaron la decisión de derribarlo por seguridad, a principios de siglo XX y en su lugar se instaló una baliza. Otro faro fantasma es el de Alaior, que nunca se llegó a construir. Por tanto, a día de hoy son 6 faros y una baliza. Pero no seremos nosotros quienes restemos importancia y quite privilegio al primer faro que dió luz a los marineros que llegaban a Menorca. El faro del Puerto de Mahón, que aunque a día de hoy lo sustituya una baliza, se merece el reconocimiento y el recuerdo de lo que fué, el primer faro de Menorca.

JSM visitamos uno de los faros de la isla, disfrutamos de las vistas espectaculares que nos regalan estos puntos estratégicos donde se ubican y aprendemos sobre su valor patrimonial. Nos gusta compartir el legado cultural de generaciones pasadas y aportar nuestro granito de arena para mantenerlo vivo.

Andere artikelen Jeep Safari Menorca

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